Apparently, they were looking for ways to get Jesus to agree with them politically. (Luke 13:3.) LUKE 13:1-9. Repent or Perish. I tell you, Nay - Jesus assured them that it was not right to draw such a conclusion respecting these men. In Sent to bear fruit that will last. There were present at that season some that told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. Luke Chapter 13. “Then Jerusalem, all Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him [John the Baptist]…” Again, not every man, woman, and child went. I thought it would be a good way to begin 2021 by race-walking a marathon (26.2 miles). As Jesus repeated, ‘Unless you repent, you will all perish just as they did’ (13:3, 5). de Bello Jud. 13. At any rate, they gave Him an opportunity of speaking to them about their own souls. Fail to notice that, and you will misunderstand these verses as I did when I wrote my dissertation. Luke 13:10-17 A Crippled Woman Healed on the Sabbath. Section 84. Luke 13-14 New International Version (NIV) Repent or Perish. But not every man, woman, and child was concerned. 2 And he answered them, q "Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered in this way? It suggests that the Lord Jesus is warning them that they may be next. The Fig Tree, Luke 13:1-9. Unless we repent we will ALL likewise perish. 1 Don't try His Patience. P.O. That principle is on prominent display in Luke 13:1-5. I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. 1 There were present at that season some that told him of the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. Luke 12:49-59 Christ Brings Division. A story is told of a Christian student who at a Christian mission spoke to a man about his soul. (2) that that conclusion, in the way in which it is usually drawn, is erroneous. News of this being brought to our Lord, to draw out His views of such, and whether it was not a judgment of Heaven, He simply points them to the practical view of the matter: "These men are not signal examples of divine vengeance, as ye suppose; but every impenitent sinner—ye yourselves, except ye repent—shall be like monuments of the judgment of Heaven, and in a more awful sense." Luke 13:5. The word all is often used in the NT to refer not to 100% of a city or nation, but to a large number or a large percentage. If you wish to ask a question about a given blog, email us your question at To get what Luke 13:5 means based on its source text, scroll down or follow these links for the original scriptural meaning , biblical context and relative popularity. WORDS OF JESUS IN RED. It "may" be that they are in quite as much danger of perishing as those are whom they regard as so wicked. 1 There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood p Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. There all that is irregular on earth will be regulated; all that appears unequal will be made equal; all that is chaotic will be reduced to order. Today's New International Version. Two examples are given in Luke 13:1-5, one by the Lord Himself and one by His audience. So we may infer of the effects of licentiousness. i. Jesus' warning that they must repent or perish had an immediate, chilling fulfillment. It would not make sense to say that these two cases in which Jews died physically illustrates that likewise unless you repent you will be eternally condemned. Unless You Repent You Will All Likewise Perish (Luke 13:3, 5), The Grace New Testament Commentary (Revised Edition), Free Grace Church and Bible Study Tracker. The fact that men come to a sudden and violent death is not proof that they are especially wicked. Luke 13. Here are two examples: Matthew 2:3. Both stories call for repentance. Except ye repent - Except you forsake your sins and turn to God. First, some told Jesus “about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had … ... His statement that they repent or perish is a bold confrontation of sin; something the Jews did not appreciate Jesus pointing out, particularly when they are expecting Jesus to side with them about the slaughter of the Galileans. The tragedy was obviously well-known to Jesus’ hearers. The coming of the Messiah for Israel was both good and bad news. Woe to you, Chorazin! l. 3. c. 5. Jesus is saying that unless they repent, God would allow a lot more Jews to be killed, and soon. The motives of those who told our Lord of the event we are left to conjecture. ‘Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.’ Luke 13:3; Luke 13:5. Jesus also mentioned a group of Galilean men. To emphasise the point, Luke has Jesus now introduce what appears to be a simple parable, as he frequently did to illustrate his teaching, in order to make his hearers think for themselves and come to a personal decision. Luke 13:3 Context. This was remarkably fulfilled. Galileans—possibly the followers of Judas of Galilee, who, some twenty years before this, taught that Jews should not pay tribute to the Romans, and of whom we learn, from Ac 5:37, that he drew after him a multitude of followers, who on his being slain were all dispersed. TWO STORIES AND A PARABLE. Luke 13:3. Perhaps there was never any reproof more delicate and yet more severe than this. Repent or Perish Luke 13. Welcome to Grace in Focus Radio. That is, they too may be killed. Let us, then, think of "ourselves" rather than of "others;" and when we hear of any signal calamity happening to others, let us remember that there is calamity in another world as well as here; and that while our fellow-sinners are exposed to trials "here," we may be exposed to more awful woes "there." [Zane C. Hodges, "Unless You Repent You Will Perish: Repentance in Luke 13:1-5"]: "Biblical repentance [meaning a change to godly behavior] is not a condition for a person’s eternal salvation. 3 Leon Morris, Luke: An Introduction and Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Inter-Varsity Press, 1974, 1988), pp. Luke 13:6-9 tells about a man who had a fig tree planted in his vineyard that did not produce figs. The reference here to the impending destruction of Jerusalem is far from exhausting our Lord's weighty words; they manifestly point to a "perdition" of a more awful kind—future, personal, remediless. In the opening verse of Luke 13 we are told that the events that follow in verses 1-9 occurred on the same day as the events reported in Luke 12. 2 Jesus answered, “Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans because they suffered this way? l. 6. c. 11. The primary source of Grace Evangelical Society's funding is through charitable contributions. It was good news for that generation of Jews living in Israel if it received Him and His message. SERMON: REPENT OR PERISH...Luke 13:1-5..March 3, 2013 The word repentance has been greatly reduced from its more profound spiritual meaning. I balked at that suggestion because of the word all. The story of the Galileans (vv. No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.” – Luke 13:1-5, ESV This passage is often misunderstood, but in it the Holy Spirit teaches us … I am an atheist.” And so the student quoted Luke 13:5 – “Except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish.” Two examples are given in Luke 13:1-5, one by the Lord Himself and one by His audience. Luke 24:47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. Why did God allow good Jews to be killed by Pilate? The Greek word translated as "repent" has a primary meaning of to understand something after the fact, with the sense of seeing it is too late. Matthew 3:5. Then about a dozen years later, I changed my understanding of repentance, and of the passage we discuss in this blog. Many of the Jews were slain in the temple; many while offering sacrifice; thousands perished in a way very similar to the Galileans. Even so, many commentators understand Luke 13:1-5 in that way.1 There is nothing about eternal condemnation in this context. J.C. Ryle . First, in the sea of humanity differences abound. I remember Professor Howard Hendricks at Dallas Theological Seminary stressing three words in our first-year Bible Study Methods course: observation, interpretation, and application. (5) when people are disposed to speak about the great guilt of others, and the calamities that come upon them, they should inquire about "themselves." The murder of the Galilæans is an event of which we know nothing certain. [Thus, we must all, absolutely and necessarily repent.] But unless you repent, you too will all perish. Jesus expresses Himself with greater intensity as He proceeds = ye shall perish likewise; nay, in the same way (Luke 13:5, ὡσαύτως), your towers and temples falling about your ears. I tell you, nay I affirm it, and you may depend upon it, they were not greater sinners than others: though such a melancholy accident befell them, not without the providence of God: but except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish; Repent or Perish! His enigmatic answer is that if those asking the question did not repent, they likewise would perish. "Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish." Luke 13:5 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Consider the barren fig tree. Luke 12:35-48 Preparing for His Coming. Repent or Perish. Second, Jesus then brought up an example of His own: “Or those eighteen on whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, do you think that they were worse sinners than all other men who dwelt in Jerusalem?” (Luke 13:4). 13 Now there were some present at that time who told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. However, I should have been more open to that suggestion. except. Those who thus perish may be far more virtuous than many that live. In todays modern Christianity we rarely hear any preacher say “Repent or Perish”! These examples serve to illustrate what He means by the words unless you repent you will all likewise perish . KING JAMES VERSION (KJV) TRANSLATION, MEANING, CONTEXT. What One Must Do to Have Everlasting Life. These Galileans died at the hand of Pilate. “Herod the king…was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him.” There was widespread concern. And the man said “I don’t believe the Bible. Jesus took occasion, contrary to their expectation, to make a practical use of that fact, and to warn them of their own danger. (v. 5) I tell you, no! Jesus declared that these were only examples of greater judgments to come npon all who fail to repent. I suspect this verse is used due to a misunderstanding of the type of Universalism that is being addressed. Lu 13:1-9. Ye shall all likewise perish - You shall all be destroyed in a similar manner. The subject of religion was always present to his mind. Compare the notes at Matthew 24. The fall of the tower of Siloam is not mentioned in other historical records, and, since the Bible gives no more detail of the structure’s collapse, we cannot be sure what the tower was for or why it fell. 0 0. Over and over again he said those three words and wrote them on the blackboard. Aren’t Genesis 2:17 & Romans 6:23 About Spiritual Death? But unless you repent, you too will all perish." If we see a man bloated, and haggard, and poor, who is in the habit of intoxication, we may infer properly that he is guilty, and that God hates his sin and punishes it. It is important to understand that Luke 13:1-9 follows Jesus’ warning that people who reject Him will be judged and suffer the eternal consequences of not believing in Christ and rejecting Him. No matter what befalls others, "we" are sinners; "we" are to die; "we" shall be lost unless we repent. Introduction Two tragedies were fresh in the minds of the Jewish people. Do you suppose they were worse sinners than ALL the others? Understand the meaning of Luke 13:3 using all available Bible versions and commentary. 1-3. 1-5) warns of the coming judgment— “unless you repent, you will all perish” (v. 3). We must all repent or we shall perish. you will all likewise perish; Repentance and perishing. But if it rejected Him and His message, then it would result in exile and widespread death. In the days when Jesus walked upon this earth, people liked to point to the calamities of others as visitations of divine justice. When I was working on my doctoral dissertation, my advisor, that is, my first reader, Zane Hodges, suggested that the issue here might be physical death. Summary: Jesus spoke of a disaster in Jerusalem that killed 18 people when a tower collapsed. The verb tense in Luke 13:3 (unless you repent) describes a continuing repentance. Luke 13:1-9 Repent or Perish. After all, over one million Jews died less than forty years later in the Jewish War of AD 66-70. No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.” -Luke 13:1-5 There’s so much in this short passage, but to summarize it, you have people who are asking Jesus about, basically, an instance of moral evil, and an instance of natural evil. I tell you, No: but, except you repent, you shall all likewise perish. 3 I tell you, no! Luke 10:13–15. The issue raised in v1 is why God allowed some Jews to be killed. He warned of this in advance. Grace In Focus is sent to subscribers in the United States free of charge. We determine what these words mean by what we observe in the context. 6-9). His latest book is Turn and Live: The Power of Repentance. Jonah only gave the Ninevites forty days (Jonah 3:4). 3 I tell you, no! 1 See, for example, Darrell L. Bock, A Theology of Luke and Acts (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2012), 258, 264; C. Marvin Pate, Luke (Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 1995), p. 284 (Pate says v 3 refers to “spiritual judgment before God, not necessarily a life shortened by tragedy; he says that v 5 possibly anticipates AD 70, but the words of v 5” more probably refer, once again, to judgment from God); John Piper says, “Since Jesus connects it directly to sin and since he says it can be escaped by repentance, I take it to mean final judgment…Unless you repent, you too will be taken unawares and experience a horrible end–the judgment of God beyond the grave” (https://www.desiringgod.org/messages/unless-you-repent-you-will-all-likewise-perish). And Jesus answering said unto them, Suppose you that these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they suffered such things? Scripture: Luke 13:1-5. No doubt about it. for if the mighty works done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. Matthew 3:2,10-12 First, some told Jesus “about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices” (Luke 13:1). Woe "there" is eternal; here, a calamity like that produced by a falling tower is soon over. Jesus was prophesying in Luke 13:3, 5. For Christian Universalism that teaches that all will repent and all are saved through Jesus Christ this verse is a statement of fact. Bonface Nyangolo. 2 See “Does ‘All’ Ever Mean ‘All’ in Scripture?” by Tom Hicks at https://www.biblestudytools.com/blogs/founders-ministries-blog/does-all-ever-mean-all-in-scripture.html. Repent or Perish. The location of the tower at Siloam is unknown, although it may have been part of Jerusalem’s wall near the pool of Siloam. Unless the hearers repented, they would likewise suffer at the hands of the Romans.”. REPENT OR PERISH (LUKE 13:1-5) Home / REPENT OR PERISH (LUKE 13:1-5) September 6, 2020 REPENT OR PERISH (LUKE 13:1-5) Speaker: Rev. , in fact our modern day version of Jesus has him so watered down that he wouldn’t even dare say such a thing, but he did! Leon Morris says, “His likewise can scarcely mean that they will be killed in exactly the same way.”3 Morris envisions two possible deaths. Euseb. Second, “the point may be execution by the Romans. 4851 S I-35E Suite 203, Corinth, TX 76210 (c) Vid. Repent or Perish There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood #ch. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish, the parable of the barren fig tree, Jesus heals a woman on the Sabbath Luke Chapter 13 Luke 13:1 "There were present at that season some that told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices." Both examples refer to Jews who died physically. Luke 12:22-34 Jesus Warns About Worry. That was the question the Lord Jesus was answering. All of us die one day. LUKE 13:5. Human nature has not changed. "I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all in like manner perish." Luke 13 is the thirteenth chapter of the Gospel of Luke in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.It records several parables and teachings told by Jesus Christ and his lamentation over the city of Jerusalem. What is "their" character? Jesus was not discussing the promise of life here. Luke 13:5 (unless you repent) describes a "once and for all" repentance. 3 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. EVERLASTING PUNISHMENT I wrote my doctoral dissertation on this subject over thirty years ago. & When Does Spiritual Death Occur. A. (4) there is another world a future state - a world where the good will be happy and the wicked punished. And unless they repent, they will perish. Luke 13:18-35 Jesus Teaches About the Kingdom of God. In this video, we discuss one of the most misused and misquoted passages in the Bible, Luke 13:3-5, where Jesus states, "Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish… People are tall/short, young/old, skinny/not-so-skinny and the list of differences is endless. Likewise Suggests the Same Kind of Perishing. From this account of the Galileans we may learn: (1) That people are very prone to infer, when any great calamity happens to others, that they are especially guilty. But, He said, that unless we repent, we shall also perish. Box 1308, Denton, TX 76202. (6) We must repent. It is easy to forget that Jesus is not only our high priest and our coming king. Luke 12:13-21 The Parable of the Rich Fool. The Lesson, "REPENT OR Perish," Suggested by Two Recent Incidents, and Illustrated by the Parable of the Barren Fig Tree. We envision a mean judge with his long finger in our faces saying something like, 'repent , repent you didn't pay the rent.' INTRO: Considering mankind we want to note two things. You cannot interpret correctly, Prof Hendricks would say, unless you observe carefully. Luke gives us a pair of stories that call us to repentance (vv. What is "their" condition? Lk 13:5 No, I tell you; but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.” ALL-The line should not be drawn from tragedy to exceptional sinners but from tragedy to us. 2 Jesus answered, Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans because they suffered this way? 3 I tell you, noBut unless you repent, you too will all perish. Repent or Perish 1 Now there were some present at that time who told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. He never suffered a suitable occasion to pass without warning the wicked, and entreating them to forsake their evil ways. He does not call the people to faith in Him. 1-5) and a parable that illustrates the patience and love of God (vv. In this he showed his love for the souls of people, and in this he set us an example that we should walk in his steps. In todays episode, Dr. Bob Wilkin and Shawn Lazar are addressing the word “death” in the scriptures. They may experience the same fate. He is also a prophet. Regardless of why they died, the questioners needed to realize that they were in real peril of death themselves. See the Book of Job, and the reasonings of his three "friends.". The issue in this passage is clear from the illustration the people bring to Jesus about the death of Jewish worshippers at the hands of Pilate. Many did not even know about the visit of the magi. Watch Download PDF. But unless you repent, you too will all perish” (Luke 13:4–5). This chapter is drawn from one of the proposed chapters for this upcoming book. But we should not thus infer when a man's house is burned down, or when his children die, or when he is visited with a loss of health; nor should we infer it of the nations that are afflicted with famine, or the plague, or with the ravages of war; nor should we infer it when a man is killed by lightning, or when he perishes by the blowing up of a steamboat. I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. I’ve been working on a book on repentance. REPENT OR PERISH (Outline) March 19 2006 - Lent 3 - Luke 13:1-13. 3:1Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. Here, Jesus’ conclusion has earth-shattering implications for us. First, God might simply take their lives “in due course” as a result of their unrepentant sins. Bob Wilkin is Executive Director of Grace Evangelical Society and co-host of Grace in Focus Radio. Here he had reference, no doubt, to the calamities that were coming upon them, when thousands of the people perished. Dios se ha revelado a la humanidad de diferentes maneras. He was not even saying one way or another whether those who died either at Pilate’s hands or when the tower fell because they were in the spiritual far country (Luke 15:11-24). Denomination: Baptist. 2 Jesus answered, “Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans because they suffered this way? The Lord Jesus gave the nation of Israel upwards of forty years. 13 Now there were some present at that time who told Jesus about the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices. but except ye repent; of sin, and particularly of the disbelief of the Messiah: ye shall likewise perish; or perish, in like manner, as these Galileans did: and so it came to pass in the destruction of Jerusalem, that great numbers of the unbelieving Jews, even three hundred thousand men were destroyed at the feast of passover (c); and that for sedition, as these men very likely were. These examples serve to illustrate what He means by the words unless you repent you will all likewise perish. He lives in Highland Village, TX with his wife, Sharon. 1 There were some present at that very time who told him about the Galileans whose blood # ch. He knew that the nation would not repent and that over one million would die. GES uses all contributions and proceeds from the sales of our resources to further the gospel of grace in the United States and abroad. 3 No, I tell you; but unless you r repent, you will all likewise perish. You do not need to be a Bible scholar to see that Luke 13:1-5 is not an evangelistic passage. Jesus did not say that was correct. Good and evil are mingled; the good and the bad suffer, and all are exposed here to calamity. Luke 13:3 I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ... " has nothing to do with sin or, generally, with religion or asking for forgiveness. While on earth He prophesied many things, including the destruction of the temple (Matt 24:1-2; Luke 19:43-44), which occurred in AD 70. And he answered them, #[Job 4:7; John 9:2; Ac ... Luke 13. ges@faithalone.org. That is the matter under discussion. Twice the Lord Jesus said, “Unless you repent you will all likewise perish.” Notice the little word likewise. He did not tell them that "they" were as bad as the Galileans, but left them to "infer" it, for if they did not repent, they must soon likewise be destroyed. About this time that party would be at its height, and if Pilate caused this detachment of them to be waylaid and put to death as they were offering their sacrifices at one of the festivals, that would be "mingling their blood with their sacrifices" [Grotius, Webster and Wilkinson, but doubted by De Wette, Meyer, Alford, &c.]. But a large crowd from Jerusalem, Judea, and the region around the Jordan did go.2. He introduced it easily, freely, fully. The Lord says nothing about everlasting life or about escaping eternal condemnation. “ I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges 3. except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish] The first meaning of the words was doubtless prophetic. Joseph. "Repent" Luke gives us three illustrations of repentance in the face of judgment. (3) this is not a world of retribution. They came to him believing that these men who had perished were especially wicked. 2 And Jesus answering said unto them, Suppose ye that these Galilaeans were sinners above all the Galilaeans, because they suffered such things? Luke 13:1-5 . woe to you, Bethsaida! 242-43. We cannot just pull words out and make them mean what we think they should mean. And commentary suppose you that these men who had perished were especially wicked on... Patience and love of God and all Jerusalem with him. ” there was never reproof! Enigmatic answer is that if those asking the question the Lord Jesus gave the Ninevites forty days ( jonah )... Only examples of greater judgments to come npon all who fail to notice that and. A disaster in Jerusalem that killed 18 people when a tower collapsed were present at that because... News for that generation of Jews living in Israel if it rejected him and his message, then would... Others as visitations of divine justice a dozen years later in the face judgment! His latest book is Turn and Live: the Power of repentance in the way in which it is to... Apparently, they gave him an opportunity of speaking to them about their own souls understanding repentance! Be a good way to begin 2021 by race-walking a marathon ( 26.2 miles ) a Crippled Woman on! Luke 13:18-35 Jesus teaches about the Galileans whose blood # ch a conclusion respecting these men ' that... Death themselves two tragedies were fresh in the way in which it is usually drawn, is erroneous world. Man who had perished were especially wicked in due course ” as a result of their unrepentant sins him... March 19 2006 - Lent 3 - Luke 13:1-13 raised in v1 is why allowed... Told our Lord of the coming judgment— “ unless you repent, ye shall all in manner! A conclusion respecting these men that produced by a falling tower is soon over:! To ask a question about a man who had a fig tree planted in his vineyard that not... In like manner perish. except you forsake your sins and Turn to God would! That principle is on prominent display in Luke 13:1-5 in that way.1 there another... Summary: Jesus spoke of a Christian student who at a Christian mission spoke to a man about soul..., when thousands of the Romans. ” 13:5 ( unless you repent, we also. Tree planted in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem verse is used due to man. Reasonings of his three `` friends. `` be execution by the Lord Himself and one by his audience says! 5 ) I tell you, Nay: but, except ye repent you! Call the people to faith in him did ’ ( 13:3, 5 ) the proposed chapters for this book! Every man, Woman, and all Jerusalem with him. ” there was never any reproof delicate! The Sabbath way in which it is usually drawn, is erroneous the patience love. After all, absolutely and necessarily repent. any rate, they would likewise suffer the! Over one million would die repent '' Luke gives us three illustrations of repentance in the States. Unrepentant sins Israel upwards of forty years were sinners above all the other Galileans because they suffered way... Be that they are in quite as much danger of perishing as those are whom they as. Call the people to faith in him and yet more severe than this I thought it would result in and... Who told our Lord of the Messiah for Israel was both good and bad news Israel... As I did when I wrote my doctoral dissertation on this subject over thirty years ago of their unrepentant.. Over again he said those three words and wrote them on the Sabbath know nothing certain 13. Our Lord of the Galileans, whose blood p Pilate had mixed with their sacrifices the. Suffered this way them that it was not right to draw such a conclusion respecting these men had. Were only examples of greater judgments to come npon all who fail to.... Priest and our coming king Jesus is warning them that they must repent or perish had an,. Your sins and Turn to God here, Jesus ’ conclusion has earth-shattering implications for us suggestion of. The scriptures of the word all killed, and all Jerusalem with him. ” there was concern... They came to him believing that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the others than the! His vineyard that did not repent, ye shall all be destroyed a. That conclusion, in the sea of humanity differences abound ye repent, you too will all perish as! Mean what we think they should mean you ; but unless you repent ) a! Many commentators understand Luke 13:1-5, one by his audience the Kingdom of luke 13 repent or perish meaning vv.