As soon as the procession halted in the Basilica, the bier was placed towards the end of the building, but it proved impossible for the clergy to begin the service with the words, 'Enter not into judgement.' Cesare, who renounced his cardinalate, was sent on a mission to France at the end of the year, bearing a bull of divorce for the new king Louis XII, in exchange for which he obtained the duchy of Valentinois (hence his title of Duca Valentino) and a promise of material assistance in his schemes to subjugate the feudal princelings of Romagna; he married a princess of Navarre. He tried to collect troops and put Rome in a state of defense, but his position was most insecure, and the Orsini offered to admit the French to their castles. A characteristic instance of the corruption of the papal court is the fact that Borgia's daughter Lucrezia lived with his mistress Giulia, who bore him a daughter Laura in 1492. He was instrumental in the election of Innocent VIII to the papal tiara in 1484, but fell out of favor upon the pope’s death in 1492, when as an aspiring cardinal he was passed over for the Borgia pope, Alexander VI (1492–1503). References: Headed by patriarch Rodrigo Borgia—who became Pope Alexander VI—the family was comprised of his four children: Cesare, Juan, Lucrezia, and Jofre, and they were accused of everything from buying the papal election to incest, with lots more in between. Among the fiefs destined for the Duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante). Lady with a Unicorn by Luca Longhi , 1535-1540 [1] possibly a portrait of Giulia Farnese AKA Rodrigo de Borja. For those who suspect Pope Alexander VI was guilty of licentiousness and duplicity, the vision of his death may seem apropos. Source Notes. cit.) Cardinal Michiel, who was poisoned in April, J. da Santa Croce, who had helped to seize Cardinal Orsini, and Troches or Troccio, one of the family's most faithful assassins; all these murders brought immense sums to the pope. After accusing him of corruption, Della Rovere retreated from Rome until Alexander died in 1503. Borgia, by a bare two-thirds majority secured by his own vote, was proclaimed Pope on the morning of 11 Aug., 1492, and took the name of Alexander VI. No sooner had Alexander VI died than Cesare’s proto-kingdom imploded and he himself was betrayed by Julius II. Giovanni Montini’s life as an ordained minister of the Catholic Church began on May 29, 1920 and continued until his death in 1978. The nose was swollen, the mouth distended where the tongue was doubled over, and the lips seemed to fill everything. Borgia succeeded and made more conquests, but worried about the French king and the loyalty of his Roman troops, led by the Orsini family. About Cardinal Ferrari's death there is more doubt; he probably died of fever, but the pope immediately confiscated his goods. As a matter of fact he cannot be regarded in any sense as a great man. But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in 1500. What makes the matter even more interesting is that Raimondi is the first cousin of the shady “Abp.” Paul Marcinkus (1922-2006) , the long-time president of the Vatican Bank (1971-89). The condition of his subjects was deplorable, and if Cesare's rule in Romagna was an improvement on that of the local tyrants, the people of Rome have seldom been more oppressed than under the Borgia. Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia Farnese (Giulia Bella), wife of an Orsini, but his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. One thing historians agree upon, more than 200 years after the fact, is that Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr didn't like each other very much. Alexanderwas so obese that no suitable coffin could be found, and his corpsebegan to decompose before the burial. He served in the Curia under five popes and acquired much administrative experience, influence and wealth, although no great power; he was economical in his habits; on occasion he displayed great splendor and lived in a fine palace. Richard Cavendish remembers the death of England's only pope, on September 1st, 1159. 1474)Son: Cesare Borgia (b. On the 15th of August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened. Alexander’s cause of death remains a mystery. The Borgia Apartments remained sealed until the … At Milan Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) ruled, nominally as regent for the youthful duke Gian Galeazzo, but really with a view to making himself master of the state. Reuben Parsons, D.D. Alexander hoped that Louis's help would be more profitable to his house than that of Charles had been and, in spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January 1499 and was joined by Venice. I placed a folded mattress on the bier and covered it with a fine new pall of bright purple brocade into which had been woven two new designs carrying the pope's arms. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century created a political and cultural vacuum that was filled, in part, by the Roman Catholic Church. of his experiences that provides an insight into the papacy of the Borgias. On the death of Pope Innocent VIII the three likely candidates for the Holy See were Cardinals Borgia, Ascanio Sforza and Giuliano della Rovere; at no previous or subsequent election were such immense sums of money spent on bribery, and Borgia by his great wealth succeeded in buying the largest number of votes, including that of Sforza, and to his intense joy he was elected on the 10th of August 1492, assuming the name of Alexander VI. Four confessors recited the Office of the Dead as they sat on the window-frame with their hands resting on the pope's litter, which was supported by paupers who stood at hand gazing at the body [it was customary to pay paupers to attend funerals]. He Cath. In June he seized Camerino and Urbino, the news of which capture filled the pope with childish joy. Fourteen ounces of blood were taken from him three days later and tertiary fever set in. Finally his stomach and bowels bled profusely. Alexander, although he could not get Savonarola into his own hands, browbeat the Florentine government into condemning the friar to death (May 23, 1498). Six laborers or porters, making blasphemous jokes about the pope or in contempt of his corpse, together with two master carpenters, performed this task. Infamous poisoner. Violent and revengeful, he now became the most powerful man in Rome, and even his father quailed before him. Fourteen years after his death, the corruption of the papacy that Alexander VI exemplified – particularly the sale of indulgences – would prompt a young monk by the name of Martin Luther to nail a summary of his grievances on the door of a church in Germany and launch the Protestant Reformation. The pope was unable to maintain order in his own dominions; the houses of Colonna and Orsini were at open war with each other, but after much fighting they made peace on a basis of alliance against the pope. This defection decided the pope to come to terms, and on the 31st of December Charles entered Rome with his troops and the cardinals of the French faction. According to Dr. Buzzonati, Pope John Paul I’s cause of death was a heart attack. Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo Lanzol Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. Father: Jofre LançolMother: Isabella BorjaMistress: Vanozza Catanei (three sons, one daughter)Son: Juan Borgia (b. After Borgia’s death, Pope Pius III served as 215th Pope only for 26 days before his death on October 18, 1503. The collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century created a political and cultural vacuum that was filled, in part, by the Roman Catholic Church. But through the intervention of the Spanish ambassador he made peace with Naples in July 1493 and also with the Orsini; the peace was cemented by a marriage between the pope's son Giuffre and Doña Sancha, Ferdinand's granddaughter. Among the most notorious of all papacies, Borgia’s family was the inspiration for Mario Puzo’s Godfather books. "On Saturday morning, August 12th, the pope felt unwell, and at about three o'clock in the afternoon he became feverish. Lucrezia Borgia was an Italian noblewoman and daughter of Pope Alexander VI. Alexander VI was a pope who lived during the 15 th century, when Italy was experiencing the Renaissance.He is considered to be one of the most controversial popes in the history of the Roman Catholic Church .Instead of focusing on spiritual matters, Alexander was more concerned with material wealth and earthly power. The appearance of the face then was far more horrifying than anything that had ever been seen or reported before. Pope Alexander VI was in constant need of money - to support his lavish life The Orsini still remained very powerful, and Alexander could count on none but his 3000 Spaniards. The new Pope loved the good life. Two of his younger brothers also had motives, but historically, their guilt was never proven. I wrote earlier about Pope Alexander VI, by way of the rogue’s gallery arrayed against him and his treacherous bastard son Cesare Borgia. He became a priest in July 1935 and rose up the hierarchy–becoming a cardinal in 1973. During her early life, Lucrezia Borgia's education was entrusted to Adriana Orsini de Milan, a close confidant of her father. But a reaction against Charles soon set in, for all the powers were alarmed at his success, and on the 31st of March a league between the pope, the emperor, Venice, Lodovico il Moro and Ferdinand of Spain was formed, ostensibly against the Turks, but in reality to expel the French from Italy. Pope John XII (955 to 964) ... Pope Alexander VI (1492 to 1503) Alexander VI bought his way into the papacy. . We placed the pope in the Sistine Chapel, whither came the monks of the city, the clergy of St Peter's and the canons bearing the cross. On the 25th of January 1494 Ferdinand died and was succeeded by his son Alphonso II. His only success had been the capture of Ostia and the submission of the Francophile cardinals Colonna and Savelli. But it was not long before his unbridled passion for endowing his relatives at the expense of the church and of his neighbors became manifest. Alexander's successor on the chair of St. Peter was Francesco Todeschini-Piccolomini, who assumed the name of Pope Pius III. When the 21-year-old duke was murdered, suspects included the rival Orsini and Sforza families who hated the infamous House of Borgia. The treaty amended papal bulls issued by Pope Alexander VI in 1493. Next morning, I had the bier brought into the Sala del Pappagallo and there set down. 1476)Daughter: Lucrezia Borgia (b. Alexander wished to accommodate the colonial aspirations of the Catholic Monarchs of his native land. Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. The Borgia family is one of the most notorious in European history. Every effort was made to discover the assassin, and suspicion fell on various highly placed personages. For this object he was ready to commit any crime and to plunge all Italy into war. Three more high personages fell victims to the Borgia's greed this year, viz. That he obtained the papacy through simony was the general belief (Pastor, loc. Through the support of Cardinal Alfonso … The expedition, if it produced no material results, laid bare the weakness of the Italian political system and the country's incapacity for resistance. Died: 18-Aug - 1503. the Pope … The scope of his foreign policy was to gain the most advantageous terms for his family.Two of Alexander's successors, Sixtus V and Urban VIII, described him as one of the most outstanding popes since Saint Peter. Two hundred tapers were prepared for those who would assemble for the pope's funeral. Fourteen years after his death, the corruption of the papacy that Alexander VI Alexander VI died soon after the poisoning. These declarations had granted Spain an exclusive claim to the entirety of North and South America. In this he was opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand. Thus further weakened, he felt more than ever that he had only his own kin to rely upon, and his thoughts were ever turned on family aggrandizement. The clergy defended themselves, but stopped chanting and fled to the sacristy when the soldiers began to use their weapons. During the second Italian war, Alexander VI supported his son Cesare Borgia as a condottiero for the French King. A notorious reputation precedes her, and she is inextricably, … Ferdinand appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was anxious to be on good terms with the pope to obtain a title over the newly discovered continent of America and could not afford to quarrel with him. with two coffers containing about a hundred thousand ducats. Upon the Borgia's elevation did not at the time excite much alarm, except in some of the cardinals who knew him, and at first his reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government in satisfactory contrast with the anarchy of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendor. On August 18, 1503 Alexander VI died at the age of 72. The sale of Cardinalships was a major source of cash, so too was the Already by four o'clock on that afternoon when I saw the corpse, again, its face had changed to the color of mulberry or the blackest cloth and it was covered in blue-black spots. Preparations for defense were made; a Neapolitan army was to advance through the Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa; but both expeditions were badly conducted and failed, and on the 8th of September Charles crossed the Alps and joined Lodovico il Moro at Milan. After the hour of Vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. The Bishop of Sessa, however, wondered if the ordinary people might not climb up to the body there, which would cause a great scandal and perhaps allow somebody who had been wronged by the pope to get his revenge. Giulia Farnese (1474 – 23 March 1524) was mistress to Pope Alexander VI, and the sister of Pope Paul III. 1-24. We rejoin his story that evening as he enters the city of Rome accompanied by an armed guard: "I returned to the city after eight o'clock in the evening, accompanied by eight of the palace guards, and in the vice-chancellor's name I ordered Giovanni Caroli the messenger, on pain of losing his office, to go with his fellow messengers to inform all the clergy in Rome, secular priests and monks alike, that they must assemble early next morning at five o'clock in the papal palace for the funeral procession from the Sistine Chapel to the Basilica of St Peter's. From Some Lies and Errors of History by the Rev. During this time period, a life as a Catholic priest was considered to be an excellent career move for young men regardless of their personal piety. Siege of Forli. Cesare, nominated gonfaloniere of the Church, and strong in French favour, proceeded to attack the turbulent cities one by one. He kept a detailed diary In the north the pendulum swung back once more and the French reoccupied Milan in April, causing the downfall of the Sforzas, much to Alexander's gratification. "The Death of Pope Alexander VI, 1503" EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com As Cesare also drank the poisoned wine, he too fell ill, though he survived. Pope Alexander VI was the Spanish-born 214th Pope. Diseases and causes of death among the popesdays, and the infamous Borgia pope, Alexander VI (1503). On his return to Rome (June 1501) he was created duke of Romagna. The connection began in 1470, and she bore him many children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Giovanni, afterwards Duke of Gandia (born 1474), Cesare (born 1476), Lucrezia (born 1480), and Goffredo or Giuffre (born 1481 or 1482). 1492, and even his father quailed before him “Pope” Paul VI Popes '' (! Among the most evil Pope in history entirety of North and South America, for papacy... 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