Tired of Pope Alexander’s meddling, Portugal decided to bypass the pope and negotiate directly with Spain for land in the New World. Pope, the title, since about the 9th century, of the bishop of Rome, the head of the Roman Catholic Church. This practice quickly made an enemy of Ferdinand I, the King of Naples. His death came a few days after a dinner with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi, who was supposedly the target of a poisoning scheme by Cesare. Pope Alexander VI (born Rodrigo de Borja) (Valencian: Roderic Llançol i de Borja [roðeˈɾiɡ ʎanˈsɔl i ðe ˈbɔɾdʒa], Spanish: Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja [roˈðɾiɣo lanˈθol i ðe ˈβoɾxa]; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503. Spain was given exclusive rights to all newly discovered and undiscovered lands in the region west of the line. Alexander soon annulled the marriage after Sforza was no longer viewed as a valuable political tie to leaders in Milan. As for Lucrezia’s ex-husband, he accused the pope’s daughter of carrying on affairs during their marriage with her own father and brother. But even with Pope Alexander VI gone, his filthy legacy remained. During this volatile time, when Italian propaganda painted anything Spanish as brutal and cruel, Rodrigo Borgia tried to build wealth and power for his Spanish family. Right before his Jubilee year, an astrologer predicted that misfortune would soon befall Alexander VI. The astrologer failed to specify how many misfortunes were about to hit him—and it was a lot. Introducing slavery in Europe Furthermore, Pope Alexander VI endowed his closest allies with fiefdoms across the Papal States and often practiced simony, the sin of selling church offices. Alexander VI was not the only Borgia to become pope. The late 15th-century rule of Pope Alexander VI was rife with nepotism, bribery, and scandalous sex — a legacy that’s caused him to be called the most corrupt pope in the history of the Catholic Church. Pope Alexander VI’s outrageous indiscretions during the Renaissance have made him a notorious figure in the church’s history to this day. When we do, we depend on our loyal, helpful readers to point out how we can do better. Your suggestions can be as general or specific as you like, from “Life” to “Compact Cars and Trucks” to “A Subspecies of Capybara Called Hydrochoerus Isthmius.” We’ll get our writers on it because we want to create articles on the topics you’re interested in. The next pope from outside of Italy was the Polish John Paul II, elected in 1978. Did he also encourage the explorer in the sense that, Columbus was in the New World to get converts by the Indigenous people to Catholicism; so this would be regarded as a good thing by the Pope because of the increasing amount of converts from people to Islam from the Eastern Europe side. After Rodrigo became Pope as Alexander VI, he advanced the career within the church of many Borja and Borgia relatives. As King Ferdinand I of Naples was threatening to come to the aid of the rightful duke Gian Galeazzo — the husband of his granddaughter Isabella — Alexander VI encouraged the French king in his scheme for the conquest of Naples. According to an account of Pope Alexander’s consecration ceremony, the church officials had to verify that he was male. Along with the right to possess the land, the Papal Bull also indicated that Spain had specific responsibilities. Cesare hoped this marriage would give him French support for his plans to take back control of the Papal States and perhaps even create a new Borgia state in Italy for Cesare to rule over himself. There were even rumors that she wore a ring with a secret compartment for arsenic to slip into drinks. Lucrezia may have warned Giovanni of his impending doom, and Giovanni fled to Milan in disguise. Calixtus III: The First Borgia Pope. Why do you think Spain wanted exclusive rights to the New World? Pope Alexander VI: A Spanish-born pontiff from the powerful Borgia family, Pope Alexander VI was infamous for his libertine behavior and nepotism. No clan is left untouched, and even families that seem happy and normal on…. Alexander VI made many alliances to secure his position. Cesare went on the warpath and settled much of Central Italy under the power of the Borgias. To accommodate them, the Spanish-born pope Alexander VI issued bulls setting up a line of demarcation from pole to pole 100 leagues (about 320 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands see Cabo Verde. Please let us know if a fact we’ve published is inaccurate (or even if you just suspect it’s inaccurate) by reaching out to us at contribute@factinate.com. Although Catherine's successor Queen Anne Boleyn suffered an infamously dark fate, Aragon's own life was somehow even more tragic. During a meeting in June of 1500, a strong wind knocked down a chimney over the papal throne, where Alexander VI was seated at the time. Pope Innocent X … Giovanni refused to turn against his uncle to support the Borgias, betraying the purpose of the political marriage Alexander arranged. Papal master of ceremonies Johann Burchard — who left behind the only account of the pope’s sordid banquet — wrote in his diary: “After dinner the candelabra with the burning candles were taken from the tables and placed on the floor, and chestnuts were strewn around, which the naked courtesans picked up, creeping on hands and knees between the chandeliers, while the Pope, Cesare, and his sister Lucretia looked on. Alexander had Alfonso taken to the Vatican to recover. Alexander then put his son in charge of a Vatican-aligned army to bring the disarrayed nearby Papal States into order. The year was 1492, and Rodrigo Borgia became Pope Alexander VI. Please reach out to us to let us know what you’re interested in reading. The sale of Cardinalships was a major source of cash, so too was the sale of indulgences. Given the sudden turnaround in the votes in Borgia’s favor, many of Pope Alexander VI’s enemies accused him of buying the votes of other cardinals. Calixtus made him a cardinal in 1456. As Spaniards, they were subject to the influence of anti-Spanish propaganda following Spain’s involvement in the affairs of Northern Italy. His uncle, Alfonso Borgia, was a cardinal, and his parents decided early in his life that Rodrigo was destined to join his uncle in the Catholic Church. Months after her first marriage ended, a child of unknown parentage was born into the Borgia family. Pope Alexander favored his son Juan, his eldest child by Vannozza dei Cattanei, until tragedy struck. This wave of anti-Spanish sentiment could have helped wild rumors about the Borgias take hold. Not much is known about Borgia's childhood, but by about 1489, she was living with her father's third cousin Adriana de Mila and her father's new mistress Giulia Farnese, who was married to Adriana's stepson. In 1493, when she was 13 years old, she married the Lord of Pesaro, Giovanni Sforza, but it didn’t last long. Young Lucrezia sitting beside her father, the pope. In 1502, she wed Alfonso de l’Este, Duke of Ferrara, with whom she had eight children. AKA Rodrigo de Borja. But Alexander VI, always ready t… Madame de Pompadour didn't just share King Louis XV's bed, she also shared his power. If anyone in the family was dispatching husbands and rivals, it was probably not Lucrezia. This meant he was not only allowing a woman to preside over the affairs of the Catholic Church, but the illegitimate daughter of a pope no less! His pontificate began well. They gave him the power to either approve or deny the proposed marriage between Ferdinand and Isabella, the future King and Queen of Spain. On August 11, 1492, at 61 years of age, Rodrigo was elevated as Pope Alexander VI. The decree asserts the rights of Spain and Portugal to colonize, convert, and enslave. Some modern historians believe Alexander VI has been unfairly besmirched in the historical record, claiming that he was the victim of a smear campaign by Pope Julius II. Facing the looming threat that the French would depose him as pope, Alexander opened negotiations with the French king. These nepotistic appointments were a common practice in the church at the time. This treaty ended up having huge historical consequences: It’s the reason Brazil—barely east of the Papal Line—still largely speaks Portuguese while the other South American countries speak Spanish. As a young cardinal, he was described as tall and handsome with “wonderful skill in money matters” — and he reportedly engaged in bribery, nepotism, and wild orgies. After assisting in the election of Pope Paul II, the Vatican sent Rodrigo to Spain as a papal legate. Rodrigo Borgia had two famous mistresses: Vannozza dei Cattanei and Giulia Farnese, both married noblewomen. Lucrezia Borgia is thought to be his mother, perhaps through her lover Perotto Calderon—but much darker rumors persisted. The most likely theory is that it was an arsenic compound. Historians still debate exactly what Cantarella was. Cesare Borgia, considered the most depraved and vicious of the pope’s children. Our credibility is the turbo-charged engine of our success. There's something about the family structure that encourages secrets. All Rights Reserved. The rest of Pope Alexander’s family, however, is a different question entirely. Months after news of the discovery, Spain and Portugal had already started fighting over the land in the New World. In 1458, for example, Cardinal Guillaume d’Estouteville promised lucrative rewards to anyone who would vote for him. He later married into the family of French King Louis XII, another alliance forged by his father. Her second husband, Alfonso of Aragon — the illegitimate son of the King of Naples — was attacked by mysterious assassins in 1500, though many suspected Lucrezia’s father and older brother, Cesare, were behind the murder because he’d allied himself with France against Italy. exploits within the context of the Renaissance era, Pope Benedict XVI and Pope Francis really did have a heart-to-heart as portrayed in. 2. In 1494, the King of France, Charles VIII, invaded Italy. They ended up signing the Treaty of Tordesillas, which equally divided the New World between the two countries. They considered several cardinals, including Rodrigo Borgia, Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), and Ascanio Sforza. The Doctrine of Discovery, 1493 | The Papal Bull "Inter Caetera," issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493, played a central role in the Spanish conquest of the New World. Catherine of Aragon was King Henry VIII’s first wife and longest-lasting Queen of England. 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