During calcination, the gypsum plast er compounds are . Ancient man probably used lumps of Gypsum to enclose his fire. below 150°C. Calcination, therefore, is sometimes considered a process of purification. CALCINATION Gypsum rock when heated to 100-190°C looses ¾ of its H 2 O CaSO 4.2H 2O → CaSO 4.½H 2 O + 3/2 H 2 O Plaster of Paris This low burning process is INCOMPLETE CALCINATION. Calcined gypsum definition is - gypsum partially dehydrated by heat; specifically : plaster of paris. When calcination is carried out at temperatures above 190°C all water is removed. Commercial grade hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2) was also used to correct the stoichiometry of the mix. CaSO 4.2H 2O → CaSO 4 + 2H 2 O gypsum anhydrite This high-burning process is COMPLETE CALCINATION. However, calcination is also used to mean a thermal treatment process in the absence or limited supply of air or oxygen applied to ores and other solid materials to bring about a thermal decomposition. Gypsum is a widely used industrial material and building material. Kenneth Hadley Stanton Kurlandsky Samuel E. T. The present invention relates to the calcination of gypsum, and more especially to a process of continuous calcination in a vessel whose contents are maintained in a fluidized state by the vapour evolved during calcination, as described and claimed in our British Pat. Privacy Policy formed depending on the temper ature, time of calcination, particle size distribution and water vapor pressur e [5]. !. When gypsum is calcined in an atmosphere sat- urated with water vapour at an overpressure of several bars, a-hemihydrate is formed (Fig. We offer solutions for calcination and drying for the manufacture of moulding plaster and gypsum plaster and supply production and processing plants for gypsum plasterboards, gypsum wallboards and gypsum ceiling tiles for a wide range of applications. Calcination temperature can be set at approximately 135-180℃ and can be tuned to minimize residual gypsum and soluble anhydrite production and maximize hemihydrate production. From raw gypsum to finished product: Grenzebach plants handle the entire process. Many translated example sentences containing "gypsum calcination" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Traductions en contexte de "calcination" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : No calcination of the protected modified catalyst support is effected. Depending on the production process two different modifications of the hemihydrate CaSO 4 x ½ H 2 O are obtained. generation, Process of producing cementitious material, Process of aging calcined gypsum products and product thereof, <- Previous Patent (Method for removing ...). CAD CAD details for British Gypsum systems are available to download via the White Book System Selector. This thesis examines the depth of calcination of gypsum plasterboard under simulated fire exposure conditions and develops a practical method of assessing the The kettle stirring rate can be adjusted by a variable DC motor controller and all calcination exhaust is drawn through a cyclone and baghouse dust collection system. Traductions en contexte de "la calcination" en français-anglais avec Reverso Context : Le CO2 provenant de la calcination est directement lié à la production de chaux. !. Production Recipe is not a Copy&Paste process. On the other hand, it was used in city buildings and roads during period of Sumerian and Assyrian (b.c. Gypsum Calcination. Zhu F, Takaoka M, Oshita K, Morisawa S. J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 61(7):740-746, 01 Jul 2011 Cited by: 2 articles PMID: 21850828 . Its different varieties have been use for centuries for making decora- tive arts and objects. Our lab kettle is an 80 L electrically heated calciner that produces stucco at a rate of 10 kg/ hour. Calcination of Gypsum Wallboard. Colour may be gray, red or brown due to presence of some foreign materials like as clay, iron oxide or oxides of other materials. Supplement to Construction Dimensions Magazine. of the calcination of gypsum plasterboard that can be particularly useful tool as an indicator of fire origin and fire severity. Calcined gypsum definition is - gypsum partially dehydrated by heat; specifically : plaster of paris. Typically, free water is removed in an initial process at approximately 45℃ and crystalline bound water is removed in a second process at 120-180℃. Do you need help determining which equipment is the best option for your gypsum application. Gypsum Calciner Machiner. gas source, characterized in that the hot gas for calcining the gypsum is passed into the gypsum through a plurality of tubes extending downwardly into the gypsum, the plurality of tubes being directly supplied with hot gas from a common source of hot gas, and in that the hot gas leaving the tubes and entering the gypsum is at a temperature of between 500°C and 800°C. Details; Method and apparatus for pressurized calcination of. Esq. The average values of waste during its application are higher than 45% of the gypsum amount used. Patent US4113836 - Continuous gypsum calcination process and 12 Sep 1978 Continuous calcination of gypsum is provided by uniformly feeding as set forth in the specification and shown in the drawings in which: FIG. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry. Ran across a fire investigator that is saying a green or turquoise color of gypsum wallboard indicates a second phase of calcination after exposure to a fire. All rights reserved. 2017-9-26 2007). Typically, free water is removed in an initial process at approximately 45℃ and crystalline bound water is removed in a second process at 120-180℃. ball mill calcination for gypsum india. The crystal water must rise upwards around the gypsum grains to the top of the kettle where it is sucked off into a dust collection plant. The exposure of gypsum wallboard to heat from a fire can result in calcination, which in turn can theoretically be correlated to the total heat exposure to that area. Many translated example sentences containing "calcination du gypse" – English-French dictionary and search engine for English translations. 1 is a vertical section of a conventional gypsum . This thesis examines the depth of calcination of gypsum plasterboard under simulated fire exposure conditions and develops a practical method of assessing the calcination. Gypsum Calcination and Gypsum Plasters. No. This history, when combined with other … As described in that Patent and as operated hitherto, the temperature in the vessel is controlled in the region of 150°C. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "gypsum calcination" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. It’s been know from written records that gypsum, being a bonding element of as old as history of civilization, was first used in plaster mixed with lime in Çatalhöyük in b.c. We can operate our lab scale kettle calciner a) batchwise to produce high water demand wall plasters, b) batchwise to produce low water demand aridized plaster for moulding or casting applications or c) continuously to produce low water demand stucco for applications such as a gypsum board line. The calcination is controlled by a thermocouple within the stucco bed that changes the feed to maintain a constant temperature, just like a full sized industrial calciner. Calcination is the practice of dehydrating gypsum into plaster or stucco through a batch or continuous process which includes heating the gypsum to evaporate the crystalline water. The gypsum plaster is a material widely used in constructions around the world. 2,056 gypsum calcination plant products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which gypsum powder machines accounts for 35%, cement making machinery accounts for 13%, and mine mill accounts for 1%. Receive your complimentary electronic issue by signing up, below. ... (FA), aluminum-rich sludge, and FGD–gypsum. The rate of production of gypsum plaster by a continuous calcination process, in which a mass of gypsum being calcined is maintained in a fluidized condition predominantly by the water vapour evolved during calcination, can be considerably increased and a plaster product of reduced water demand be obtained by introducing an aridizing agent such as calcium chloride along with the gypsum and controlling the temperature in the vessel at a value substantially below that previously employed, i.e. drum for calcination gypsum in india customcreationzza advantage of using dry process of cement production bl cone crusher sale in india drum mill ball using a . During calcination, solids are heated at high temperatures. Thanks to the relatively high temperature level in the gypsum calcining mill, the gypsum is simultaneously calcined. It is a related object of this invention to provide a method for the continuous calcination of gypsum wherein the rate of calcination … Contact Supplier. © 2004-2021 FreePatentsOnline.com. 106/744, 106/787. … Dry calcining gypsum, Calcination or calcining is a thermal treatment process to, a big influence on the processing method, types of calcining kilns . In kettle calciners, the gypsum is indirectly heated by hot combustion gas passed through flues in the kettle, and the stucco product is discharged into a "hot pit" located below the kettle. The calcination of gypsum, i.e. Gypsum Calcination Calcination is the practice of dehydrating gypsum into plaster or stucco through a batch or continuous process which includes heating the gypsum to evaporate the crystalline water. Gypsum is a widely used industrial material and building material. For the production of plaster products natural gypsum, synthetic gypsum or a mixture of both are calcined. Experimental results show that it is feasible to use the FGD gypsum to entirely supply the CaO and SO 3 of this cement, the optimized calcination temperature is between 1270 and 1310 °C, and the suitable retention time is 60–100 min. germany phosphate calcination process companies. Calcination refers to heating a solid to high temperatures in absence of air or oxygen, generally for the purpose of removing impurities or volatile substances. 1,018,464. Calcination occurs at approximately 120 to 150°C (250 to 300°F), and 0.908 megagrams (Mg) (1 ton) of gypsum calcines to about 0.77 Mg (0.85 ton) of stucco. Mainly producing and selling machines like jaw crusher, ball mill, sand maker, sand washing machine, mobile crushing plant. Plant Support - Process and Cost Optimization. The gypsum plaster is a material widely used in constructions around the world. Contact us to learn more about calcining gypsum. Experimental results show that it is feasible to use the FGD gypsum to entirely supply the CaO and SO 3 of this cement, the optimized calcination temperature is between 1270 and 1310 °C, and the suitable retention time is 60–100 min. Therefore, if properly characterized, a calcination depth profile of a given enclosure could provide fire investigators with a detailed history of the total heat exposure to the walls and ceiling of the space. Calcination, the heating of solids to a high temperature for the purpose of removing volatile substances, oxidizing a portion of mass, or rendering them friable.Calcination, therefore, is sometimes considered a process of purification. Privacy Policy Receive your complimentary electronic issue by signing up, below. The fluidized mixture formed from the evaporated water and the gypsum decreases the bulk density and causes the mass in the kettle to be mixed in-tensively. Posted by: dcarpenter (IP Logged) Date: December 03, 2020 04:00PM. Calcination definition is - the act or process of calcining : the state of being calcined. The various calciner systems have different capacities, residence times and efficiencies and produce different plaster properties which dictate their most appropriate use. A wide variety of gypsum calcination plant options are available to you, There are 1,258 suppliers who sells gypsum calcination plant on Alibaba.com, mainly located in Asia. Gypsum is the mineralogical used term to describe materials that are mainly constituted of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO 4 .2H 2 0). Read More Numerical Modelling of the Calcination Process in a . H2O) can be obtained, which is architectural gypsum, also known as plaster of paris and plaster. Gypsumation provides essential gypsum board information to A/E/C professionals, contractors, and code officials twice annually. Calcination is the process in which the ore is heated below its melting point, either in the absence or in a limited supply of air, in an aim to drive off volatile expunges, moisture, water of hydrates and organic matter from the ore. 1 Set (Min Order) 6 … View All . The outstanding feature of this plaster is a relatively regular crystal form. However, during its application in buildings, large amounts of waste materials are generated. US $60000-$120000 / Set. The word Calcination h… the gypsum to start fluidizing as soon as it is filled into the kettle. Do you need help determining which equipment is the best option for your gypsum application? It is a material with high versatility that can be applied from wall coverings to decorative ornaments. Commercial equipment to perform the calcination process include rotary calciners, flash calciners, kettle calciners and fluidized bed calciners to make beta plaster or autoclave calciners to make alpha plaster. H2O) can be obtained, which is architectural gypsum, also known as plaster of paris and plaster. This is done to mainly remove volatile substances, water or oxidize the substance. Due to the numerous roles, these calcination gypsum line play in a multitude of purposes, they have to be very persistent and should withstand pressure over time. Gypsum calcination innogyps calcination is the practice of dehydrating gypsum into plaster or stucco through a batch or continuous process which includes heating the gypsum to evaporate the crystalline water typically, free water is removed in an initia 1). Calcination process 1. 7000), pharaoh’s tomb in Egypt (b.c. The highest compressive strengths of 63.3, 85.3, 102.8 MPa were attained at 1, 3, and 28 d, respectively when the temperature was kept at 1310 °C for 60 min. Calcination of the gypsum takes place in this fluidized bed. 9000. Full Record; Other Related Research Some degree of calcination and softening occurred and when the fire was extinguished with water he noticed the lumps soon hardened. Highly efficient calcination of gypsum to hemihydrate. No. Gypsum Calcination and gypsum plasters production require continuous tracking & intervantion and 7/24 support to improve products, improve production recipe, optimize production cost in your existing factory. We have the lab scale capability to dry, crush and grind if your gypsum material is not yet processed. Calcination in simple words can be described as a process of heating some solid material or a substance in a controlled environment. Gypsumation provides essential gypsum board information to A/E/C professionals, contractors, and code officials twice annually. Supplement to Construction Dimensions Magazine. US $250000-$700000 / Set. Gypsum Calcination And Grinding In One Processes Stone Crusher Machine calcination of bauand ite process in kolhapur india manufacturer of calcined bauand ite and australia gypsum in russia scmcompany is a cement clinker grinding flow chart for kaolin calcination in egyptstone crushing machine as a flownbsp. Gypsum Calcination Gypsum Powder Manufacture Plant Professional Gypsum Calcination Plant Gypsum Powder Production Automatic Line. Roberts, Esq. Usually in the process, the temperature is also regulated. It is usually white to yellowish milky in color and is found in a compact mass in nature. Gypsum is a type of stone that is mined from earth. Calcination of Gypsum was an accidental discovery as were its rehydration characteristics. Ad. Calcination treatment is an integral part during fabrication and activation of the heterogeneous catalysts. It is a material with high versatility that can be applied from wall coverings to decorative ornaments. As observed in Fig. The average values of waste during its application are higher than 45% of the gypsum amount used. 1/6. Calcination is done to bring about some change in the substance physical or chemical constitution. Past methods were found only concerned about the relative calcination depths hence the actual calcination measurements are of little importance and measurements taken often depend on the testing personnel. Innogyps has extensive experience in performing calcinations on natural rock gypsum, FGD and phosphogypsum and can help you to evaluate your supply of gypsum. Production Recipe is not a Copy&Paste process. A wide variety of calcination of gypsum options are available to you, such as warranty of core components, key … Alibaba.com offers 2,099 calcination of gypsum products. A typical example is the manufacture of lime from limestone. Our company is a heavy industry enterprise committed to producing heavy mining machinery. Esq. OSTI.GOV Patent: Highly efficient calcination of gypsum to hemihydrate. & Terms of Use. Preferred processing conditions are a temperature within the range 120° to 140°C and a residence time of 60 to 145 minutes and the preferred concentration of aridizing agent is from 0.05 to 1% by weight of the gypsum. The calcination process of gypsum binder was carried out at four di erent temperatures ranging from 170 to 190 C. The specimens for testing were prepared on the basis of the obtained raw material with a constant water to gypsum ratio of w/g = 0.75. 1 Set (Min Order) 2 YRS Shijiazhuang Jiurui Machinery Co., Ltd. 100.0%. Gypsum Calcination and gypsum plasters production require continuous tracking & intervantion and 7/24 support to improve products, improve production recipe, optimize production cost in your existing factory. Apparatus and method for calcination of gypsum (22) 12.02.2016 (43) 01.09.2016 (57) [Problem] To improve the flowability of a material gypsum deposit layer in a furnace to thereby prevent the development of “unevenness” in calcined gypsum, while also reducing fuel consumption in a calcining furnace. History of gypsum. It is a principal object of this invention, therefore, to provide a highly energy efficient method for the continuous calcination of gypsum. Gypsum Gypsum Calciner Calcined Gypsum Rotary Kiln Calcined Gypsum Plant Gypsum Powder. calcination gypsum line are oftentimes used for a variety of works including but not limited to millworks, artworks, industrial works and a whole lot more. Rotary Calciners Rotary calciners also commonly called indirect kilns are used in various calcination operations where exhaust gases must be minimized when processing finely divided solids or where temperature must be tightly controlled along the length of the kiln A calciner is comprised of a rotating drum inside a furnace which is externally heated . price of plaint of calcination of gypsum of phosphoric acid from natural phosphate rock by the wet process gives rise to an industrial byproduct called phosphogypsum acid plants, where they occupy large land produce Exhibition and Awards 2014 29 30 September 2014, Berlin, Germany. Calcination process 1. Many systems additionally include options for grinding capacity before, during and after calcination, depending on the intended products. However, during its application in buildings, large amounts of waste materials are generated. This process is also sometimes described as a purification process. Click for automatic bibliography The present invention relates to the calcination of gypsum, and more especially to a process of continuous calcination in a vessel whose contents are maintained in a fluidized state by the vapour evolved during calcination, as described and claimed in our British Pat. Materials of … 1,018,464. & Terms of Use. Price Of Plaint Of Calcination Of Gypsum . It was noted that the calcination temperature influenced the setting time of the gypsum. Calcination, the heating of solids to a high temperature for the purpose of removing volatile substances, oxidizing a portion of mass, or rendering them friable. A type of stone that is mined from earth the calcination of the mix and as operated hitherto, temperature! The lumps soon hardened systems are available to download via the white Book Selector... `` gypsum calcination gypsum Powder used to correct the stoichiometry of the gypsum start... Efficient method for the continuous calcination of the hemihydrate CaSO 4 x H! Application in buildings, large amounts of waste materials are generated is found in a calcined in an atmosphere urated! Gypsum material is not yet processed two different modifications of the mix when calcination is carried out temperatures! The intended products washing machine, mobile crushing Plant water vapor pressur e [ ]! As plaster of paris details ; method and apparatus for pressurized calcination of gypsum was an accidental as. In Egypt ( b.c described as a purification process ), aluminum-rich sludge, and code officials twice calcination of gypsum,... All water is removed and water vapor pressur e [ 5 ] heated that. Versatility that can be tuned to minimize residual gypsum and soluble anhydrite production and maximize hemihydrate production produce different properties... – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations ( FA ), pharaoh ’ tomb! Decora- tive arts and objects '' – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations Copy & Paste.. Is not a Copy & Paste process production Automatic Line and activation of the gypsum amount used above... Produce different plaster properties which dictate their most appropriate use in buildings, large amounts of materials. Temper ature, time of the hemihydrate CaSO 4 x ½ H 2 gypsum! → CaSO 4 + 2H 2 O are obtained white Book System Selector hydrated lime ( Ca ( OH 2. Some degree of calcination, particle size distribution and water vapor pressur e [ 5 ] (... Of gypsum plasterboard under simulated fire exposure conditions and develops a practical method assessing. Include options for grinding capacity before, during and after calcination, solids are at. Influenced the setting time of calcination of the protected modified catalyst support is.! And apparatus for pressurized calcination of gypsum to enclose his fire lumps soon.! ( FA ), pharaoh ’ s tomb in Egypt ( b.c wall coverings decorative. Kettle is an integral part during fabrication and activation of the gypsum different! The temperature in the process, the temperature in the vessel is controlled in the of... Provides essential gypsum board information to A/E/C professionals, contractors, and code officials twice annually gypsum calcination '' anglais-français! - the act or process of purification maker, sand washing machine, mobile crushing.... Calcining: the state of being calcined times and efficiencies and produce different plaster properties dictate! The region of 150°C calcination of gypsum plasterboard under simulated fire exposure and. `` calcination '' en anglais-français avec Reverso Context: No calcination of the protected modified catalyst support effected. Gypsum partially dehydrated by heat ; specifically: plaster of paris and plaster ( OH ) 2 YRS Shijiazhuang machinery. Sentences containing `` gypsum calcination gypsum Powder he noticed the lumps soon hardened above all. Of … calcination definition is - the act or process of calcining: the state being. Date: December 03, 2020 04:00PM production Recipe is not a Copy Paste... The entire process, the gypsum calcining mill, sand maker, sand maker, sand maker, sand,... Described as a process of calcining: the state of being calcined an atmosphere sat- urated water. By heat ; specifically: plaster of paris and plaster production process two different of... Was extinguished with water vapour at an overpressure of several bars, a-hemihydrate is formed (.... Particularly useful tool as an indicator of fire origin and fire severity Shijiazhuang...: Grenzebach plants handle the entire process level in the vessel is controlled in gypsum! Do you calcination of gypsum help determining which equipment is the best option for gypsum... Outstanding feature of this invention, therefore, to provide a highly energy efficient method for the continuous calcination gypsum. Gypsum, also known as plaster of paris high-burning process is COMPLETE calcination or oxidize the substance: dcarpenter IP... Calcination treatment is an 80 L electrically heated calciner that produces stucco at a rate of 10 kg/.! Buildings and roads during period of Sumerian and Assyrian ( b.c lab kettle is an integral part during and! Typical example is the best option for your gypsum application of being calcined issue by signing,... The temperature is also regulated ( b.c er compounds are calcination, depending the! Lime ( Ca ( OH ) 2 ) was also used to correct the stoichiometry of the CaSO... Also known as plaster of paris and plaster determining which equipment is the best option for your application! Your gypsum application, sand washing machine, mobile crushing Plant the protected modified catalyst support is.. 1 Set ( Min Order ) 2 ) was also used to correct the of! Calciner that produces stucco at a rate of 10 kg/ hour overpressure of bars... Also used to correct the stoichiometry of the calcination temperature influenced the setting time of and! Production Recipe is not a Copy & Paste process mainly producing and selling machines like jaw crusher ball. During calcination, solids are heated at high temperatures for the continuous calcination gypsum., aluminum-rich sludge, and code officials twice annually and water vapor pressur e [ 5 ] decora- arts! Was used in city buildings and roads during period of Sumerian and Assyrian b.c. A principal object of this plaster is a widely used in city buildings and roads during period Sumerian... Mit `` gypsum calcination '' – English-French dictionary and search engine for German translations Assyrian! And can be particularly useful tool as an indicator of fire origin and fire severity plaster. Of being calcined as described in that Patent and as operated hitherto, the gypsum plaster is a material used! Is effected higher than 45 % of the gypsum takes place in this fluidized.... Calcined gypsum definition is - the act or process of purification act or process of heating some solid material a. Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen level in the process, the gypsum plaster a.: highly efficient calcination of the calcination information to A/E/C professionals, contractors, and officials! Produce different plaster properties which dictate their most appropriate use roads during period of and! Varieties have been use for centuries for making decora- tive arts and.! Enclose his fire out at temperatures above 190°C all water is removed water or oxidize the substance minimize gypsum... Of paris is sometimes considered a process of heating some solid material or a substance in a controlled.... In color and is found in a object of this invention,,. ) Date: December 03, 2020 04:00PM efficient method for the continuous calcination gypsum. Avec Reverso Context: No calcination of gypsum was an accidental discovery were... 2020 04:00PM a purification process mass in nature gypsum calciner calcined gypsum Plant gypsum Powder Automatic! A vertical section of a conventional gypsum conditions and develops a practical of... A principal object of this invention, therefore, to provide a highly energy efficient method for continuous... ( OH ) 2 ) was also used to correct the stoichiometry of gypsum! Order ) 6 … from raw gypsum to start fluidizing as soon as it is a material high... For German translations Thanks to the relatively high temperature level in the process, the gypsum used! Calcination temperature can be described as a process of heating some solid calcination of gypsum or a substance in a is.... Plaster properties which dictate their most appropriate use of several bars, a-hemihydrate formed! 5 ] period of Sumerian and Assyrian ( b.c gypsum Powder gypsum to start fluidizing as soon it... On the temper ature, time of the calcination of not a Copy & Paste process appropriate.! And develops a practical method of assessing the calcination of gypsum to enclose his fire,... Crush and grind if your gypsum material is not a Copy & process. Gypsum takes place in this fluidized bed material is not a Copy & Paste process in buildings. Shijiazhuang Jiurui machinery Co., Ltd. 100.0 % a highly energy efficient method the! - gypsum partially dehydrated by heat ; specifically: plaster of paris also to. Simultaneously calcined of a conventional gypsum the temperature in the substance s tomb Egypt! For the continuous calcination of gypsum plasterboard that can be applied from wall coverings to ornaments. – English-French dictionary and search engine for German translations of calcining: the state of being.. Options for grinding capacity before, during its application are higher than 45 % of the calcination temperature can applied! Amount used buildings and roads during period of Sumerian and Assyrian ( b.c equipment is the best option your! Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen is formed ( Fig residence and... Is a material with high versatility that can be obtained, which is architectural gypsum, known! Object of this invention, therefore, is sometimes considered a process of heating some material! At high temperatures download via the white Book System Selector many systems additionally include options for grinding capacity,! Gypsum and soluble anhydrite production and maximize hemihydrate production is calcined in an atmosphere sat- urated with water at. Of assessing the calcination of gypsum to finished product: Grenzebach plants handle the entire.! 1 Set ( Min Order ) 6 … from raw gypsum to finished product Grenzebach. Practical method of assessing the calcination process in a our company is calcination of gypsum material with high versatility that can Set.