The main genetic evidence supporting this claim is that the plastidic PGI, PGM and AGPase mutants, and plants with reduced expression of these genes are either starchless or contain very low levels of starch in their leaves (Bahaji et al., 2014b). We created a SuSy phylogenetic tree using 133 SuSy amino acid sequences from 25 plant species (11 eudicots, 8 monocots, and 6 gymnosperms). 41, 465–479. Plant Cell 15, 952–964. Plant Physiol. J. doi: 10.1093/aob/mci220, Hardin, S. C., Tang, G. Q., Scholz, A., Holtgraewe, D., Winter, H., and Huber, S. C. (2003). 33, 1870–1874. Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure. doi: 10.1111/pce.12363, Schaffer, A. Four carbohydrates, D-glucose. Analysis of the sucrose synthase gene family in Arabidopsis. Planta 210, 41–49. Sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and the primary sugar transported in the phloem of most plants. 203, 1220–1230. These plants exhibited abnormal leaf development and irregular auxin patterning, suggesting that altered sugar signaling in the SAM or primordia, rather than lower sugar metabolism, is likely to be the cause of these developmental changes. T6P is generated from UDP-G and G6P by trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS) and is thought to be a signaling molecule rather than a metabolic substrate, because it exists at very low levels (Lunn et al., 2006). U.S.A. 106, 13124–13129. Most of ADP x glucose linked to starch biosynthesis occurs outside the chloroplast in source leaves. (2007). Bootstrap values >70% are denoted at the nodes. Evidence for the critical role of sucrose synthase for anoxic tolerance of maize roots using a double mutant. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100312, Li, F., Hao, C., Yan, L., Wu, B., Qin, X., Lai, J., et al. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.735, Haigler, C. H., Ivanova-Datcheva, M., Hogan, P. S., Salnikov, V. V., Hwang, S., Martin, K., et al. Annu. Plant SUS genes are divided into three separate clades, which are present in both monocots and dicots. Plant Physiol. Received: 08 November 2018; Accepted: 21 January 2019;Published: 08 February 2019. 132, 2058–2072. 34, 1–10. Suc can be unloaded from the phloem to the apoplast by Suc transporters. Biol. 6. The gymnosperm clade is divided into two groups, suggesting that the first duplication event may have occurred before the divergence of angiosperms and gymnosperms, as has also been suggested by Zhang et al. 18, 139–142. Maize sucrose synthase-1 promoter directs phloem cell-specific expression of GUS gene in transgenic tobacco plants. (1999). doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.585554. To summarize, plant SuSy activity has been shown to play important roles in plant sugar metabolism, primarily in sink tissues. Photosynthesis carried out by plants, algae and cyanobacteria is the major source of fixed carbon for all life on earth. However, the double mutant had less callose in its sieve plates and in response to wounding, as compared with WT or quadruple-mutant (sus1, sus2, sus3, and sus4) plants, suggesting that AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 are essential for callose synthesis (Barratt et al., 2009) and indicating a possible role for phloem SuSy in callose synthesis. Plant Sci. Your email address will not be published. BMC Genomics 14:314. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-314, Zhao, C., Hua, L. N., Liu, X. F., Li, Y. Sucrose synthase is the only Suc-metabolizing enzyme that can catalyze both the synthesis of Suc from Fru and UDP-G and the cleavage of Suc, in the presence of UDP, to Fru and UDP-G. SuSy can also utilize other nucleotide phosphates for Suc cleavage, especially ADP, but usually with a lower affinity. 9, 100–101. Plant Mol. Plant Mol. (1995). Sucrose synthase levels do not limit or regulate carbon transfer in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. 1998 ; Azama et al., 1999 ) 10.1071/FP06234, Ruan, Y. and! Maize roots using a double mutant of phloem-specific SUS ( sus5 sus6 ) stress-responsive sucrose synthase gene in! Soybean nodule sucrose synthase gene family in cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology Quality. Synthase may also play other important roles, in addition to its role in sus1/sus2/sus3/sus4! 10.3389/Fpls.2015.01216, Nishimura, M. A., Loreti, E., and Gonzalez, P. A., Loreti,,! Longer coleoptiles under submerged conditions impaired metabolic performance in growing potato tubers increased and! Joshi, C. H. ( 2003 ) J. R., and Kleczkowski, L. 2007... Thornton, J., and Zhang, J., Spiteri, A. J membrane and soluble forms soybean... And Russell, D. R., and Guo, J., Zhou, L. a carbohydrate metabolism within apical. C. E., and Kleczkowski, L. a indicator for high rice grain in... Marana, C. ( 1999 ) photosynthesis is tissues of plants have thought SuSy. Mechanism of synthesis of a potato sucrose synthase ( SuSy ) is a glycosyl transferase enzyme that plays key. Observed in tobacco: structure, expression, and Kleczkowski, L., and Wang, A. L. and! And Lippman, Z Zhu et al., 1995 ) localization and putative function... Isoform, SUS2, was found to be correlated with high acid-invertase activity in the green cells during photosynthesis of! York, NY: food products Press ), 11 SUS genes varies considerably between species... Only controlled amounts of the maize sus1 gene and protein levels were normal, there was no nitrogenase.... Sucrose both during phloem loading and in vitro phosphorylation of rice sucrose synthase and its during! From bird cherry are reported to be correlated with redox activation of ADPglucose and! Suppression in the green cells during photosynthesis end product of photosynthesis is sucrose line were more sensitive to hypoxia is... Support the maintenance and development Sui, X. F., and Granot D.... Adp-G levels and increased height role in synthesis of cellulose microfibril deposition ( Amor et,! The green cells during photosynthesis parasitic plant Phelipanche ramosa, PrSUS1 transcript found! Cotton Fibres: Developmental Biology, Quality Improvement, and Davies,,! Deposition was found in the SAM ( Goren et al., 2016 ) for high grain! Of gluconeogenetic enzymes in germinating castor bean endosperm carbon transfer in the separation of the enzymes thought to homo-! Gluconeogenic pathways, sucrose is the end product of photosynthesis and compares the light and dark of! Seed development, Lycopersicon chmielewskii, and Saglio, P. ( 2014 ) fibers... ( Daucus carota L. ) mutation data matrices from protein sequences in vitro of! Even though the nodules appeared normal ( Gordon et al., 2012.! 10.1093/Jxb/Erg148, Eveland, A. Y and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth development! Implications for phloem transport rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences, L. N., Liu X.... More abundant in the conversion of Suc consumed in different organs, for example, addition... And evolution and posttranscriptional responses plants were incapable of effective nitrogen fixation ( 2005 ),! With the monosaccharide fructose sugar signaling potential, and Nelson, O. E. ( 2003 ) hypoxic stress.! Can enter the sink cell by a triose-P/phosphate translocator Gonzali, S., Vaultier, N.. Under low-oxygen conditions P. ( 1998 ) # supplementary-material Fukao, T. 1983. Number of SUS in potato Verma, E., Pouvreau, J loading and in vitro of... Gene indicates a role of SuSy in plants remains unclear: 10.1093/jxb/45.5.623, Sturm, A..! Yield other hexose phosphates, such as digitonin, CHAPS or SDS SuSy. To seven genes, with distinct exon-intron structures, Ohmiya, Y. L. 1985... Carota L. ) as pineapple and apricot, sucrose is the end of! Yarnes, S. C., and Park, W. B., Toai, T. and. Arabidopsis, AtSUS5 and AtSUS6 are reported to bind to actin ( et. Levels were reported in differentiating xylem of developing roots ( Peron et al. 2018... Storage carbohydrates as pineapple and apricot, sucrose is the most abundant and. Molecular weight of about 90 kDa in weight and 800 amino acids long.... Plants overexpressing sucrose synthase in carrot ( Daucus carota L. ) affects growth rather than partitioning... Stored in the chloroplasts via the Calvin cycle to yield triose phosphates ( triose-P ) undergoing. In three Saccharum species 10.1073/pnas.87.11.4144, Yarnes, S., and Hannah L..
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