In addition, these studies confirm that all bond angles are equal (120°) and that the benzene molecule has a planar (flat) structure. Research conducted with X-rays has allowed us to determine that the bond length for all six C-C bonds in benzene is 142 pm. Benzene is toxic and is known to cause cancer with prolonged exposure. Aromatic compounds are divided into two categories: benzenoids (one containing benzene ring) and non-benzenoids (those not containing benzene ring), provided they follow Huckel rule. It reacts with IV in presence of aluminium chloride to form acetophenone. Benzene is an aromatic compound, as the C-C bonds formed in the ring are not exactly single or double, rather they are of intermediate length. The delocalized structure of benzene also accounts for the X-ray data (all C-C bond lengths equal) and the absence of the type of isomerism shown in Fig. The 4th bond pair of electrons from each Carbon atom is delocalised, creating a delocalised cloud of electrons above and below the plane. Benzene has 6 molecular π orbitals. C-C bond length in benzene is 140 pm and C-H bond length is 109 pm. The C-C π Bonds. The ring structure of benzene was proposed by II .It shows III substitution reactions. An orbital model for the benzene structure. 43.1. Benzene is built from hydrogen atoms (1s 1) and carbon atoms (1s 2 2s 2 2p x 1 2p y 1).. Each carbon atom has to join to three other atoms (one hydrogen and two carbons) and doesn't have enough unpaired electrons to form the required number of bonds, so it needs to promote one of the 2s 2 pair into the empty 2p z orbital. Therefore, all the C-C bond lengths are the same, and the length is between single and double bond lengths. The common practice of using only one of the Lewis structures is only to make keeping track of the π electrons easy. Benzene is planar molecule (or a flat molecule). It means, that the distance between the same pair of atoms (e.g., C-H) may vary depending on which compound we are dealing with. Benzene has a melting point of 5.5°C and a boiling point of 80°C. All carbon atoms in benzene are I hybridised. BO = ½(B – A) The C-C σ Bonds. All the carbon-carbon bond angles in benzene are identical, 120°. Building the orbital model. σ BO = ½(B – A) = ½(2 – 0) = 1. Benzene is an hexagonal ring in shape with bond angles of 120degrees between Carbon atoms.All the bond lengths in Benzene are equal. Benzene has a planar structure. As a result of the delocalization, benzene ring is stable, thus, reluctant to undergo addition reactions, unlike other alkenes. The bond order of a bond is half the difference between the number of bonding and antibonding electrons. Each C-C σ bond is a localized bond. 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